What is bipolar disorder?
When someone with bipolar disorder feels extremely exuberant and confident, they are said to be “manic.” These emotions can also include impatience and rash or risky decision-making. Depression, also known simply as depression, is a mental disease defined by persistently low mood for at least two weeks. You may feel gloomy or hopeless when you are depressed, and you may lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood switches to mania or hypomania (a milder form of mania), you may feel ecstatic, energized, or particularly irritable. These moods range from excessively “up,” to extremely “down,” sad, indifferent, or hopeless conduct.
How common the bipolar disorder is?
Every year, roughly 5.7 million adult Americans, or about 2.6% of the U.S. population age 18 and older, suffer with bipolar illness. The average age for bipolar disorder is 25 years, while the condition can begin as early as childhood or as late as the 40s and 50s.
Signs of bipolar disorder:
A person with bipolar disorder may experience identifiable manic or depressive episodes, but they may also experience extended periods sometimes years without symptoms. A person can potentially experience both extremes at the same time or in fast succession. Severe manic or depressive episodes of bipolar disorder may entail psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. These psychotic symptoms usually mirror a person’s extreme mood.
10 important signs of bipolar disorder
- Excessive joy, optimism, and enthusiasm
- Sudden shifts from elation to irritability, anger, and hostility
- Thoughts that race
- Ineffective decision-making
- Reduced need for sleep Reduced appetite
- Increased self-assurance and well-being
- Being prone to distraction
- Poor Judgment
Causes of bipolar disorder:
- Bipolar disorder patients appear to have physical changes in their brains. The importance of these modifications is still unknown, but they may eventually aid in determining reasons.
- Bipolar disorder is more likely in persons who have a first-degree family with the condition, such as a sibling or parent.
- Although brain scans cannot be used to diagnose bipolar disorder, researchers have discovered small changes in the average size or activation of some brain areas in patients with the disorder.
- Life events including various types of childhood trauma are thought to play a role in spurring bipolar disorder in those who are already vulnerable to developing the condition.
Types of bipolar disorder:
- Bipolar type 1 Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a condition in which persons have had one or more episodes of mania. Most people with bipolar I will experience episodes of both mania and depression, while depression is not required for a diagnosis. Manic episodes lasting at least 7 days Depressive episodes are common and usually last at least two weeks. Depression episodes with mixed features are also possible. When symptoms of bipolar disorder first develop, most persons are in their teens or early twenties. Almost everyone who has bipolar I disorder before the age of 50 has it.
- Increased energy, hyperactivity, and decreased sleep requirement
- Inflated self-esteem
- Excessive expenditure
- Bipolar type 2 Disorder
You’ve had at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes. It is a subtype of bipolar illness in which persons have depressed periods that alternate with hypomanic episodes but never have a “full” manic episode. Many persons with bipolar type 2 diseases are depressed for the most of their illness. Bipolar illness symptoms might include depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, personality problems, and even schizophrenia.
- Cyclothymic Disorder
Cyclothymic disorder is a mental condition. It is a moderate form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness) in which a person has mood fluctuations that range from mild depression to powerful emotions over a period of years. The low and high mood fluctuations are never as severe or as long as major depressed or complete manic episodes. Cyclothymic disorder manifests lesser symptoms than full-blown bipolar illness. Cyclothymic symptoms include emotional highs and lows. Cyclothymic highs include signs of a heightened mood. The lows are characterized by mild to moderate depression symptoms.
Difference between bipolar type 1 disorder VS bipolar type 2 disorder?
Episodes of severe mood characterize all types of bipolar disorder. The highs are referred to as manic episodes. The lows are referred to as depressive episodes. The fundamental distinction between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 disorders is the degree of each type’s manic episodes. A person with bipolar 1 will have a full manic episode, whereas a person with bipolar 2 will only have a hypomanic episode (a less severe phase than a full manic episode). A person suffering from bipolar 1 may or may not have a major depressive episode, but a person suffering from bipolar 2 will have a severe depressive episode.
Risk Factors of Bipolar Disorder:
Bipolar disorder can affect everyone. However, like with other diseases, some people are at a higher risk than others due to a variety of circumstances. The following are the most likely risk factors:
Children with relatives who have other psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are more likely to develop bipolar disorder; similarly, people with a family history of other conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, are more likely to develop bipolar disorder.
Both men and women are affected by this medical illness, however in slightly different ways. Men, for example, are more likely to suffer from early-onset bipolar disorder, which is frequently seen as a more debilitating type of the disorder. Women are more likely to suffer from the rapid cycling kind, which involves four or more manic or depressed episodes each year.
- Brain Structure Damage
Bipolar disorder may potentially have some roots in brain abnormalities. A meta-analysis of 30 scientific studies found that persons in the early stages of the condition have abnormalities in certain brain areas such as the hippocampus, amygdala.
It is fairly uncommon for someone suffering from bipolar disorder to also deal with alcoholism. People with bipolar disorder frequently use alcohol to self-medicate.
Bipolar disorder is commonly diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 30. It is crucial to remember that bipolar disorder can appear at any age. In the elderly, the disease is sometimes discovered after a catastrophic illness or stroke.