What is generalized epilepsy nhs?
Generalized epilepsy nhs is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurrent seizures. A seizure is an abnormal surge of electrical activity in your brain. The terms “epilepsy” and “seizure disorders” are interchangeable. Seizures are brief bursts of abnormal and excessive electrical activity in your brain that can alter your appearance or behavior. It says nothing about the cause or severity of the person’s seizures. Generalized epilepsy nhs is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder which is characterized by repeated seizures in which brain activity becomes abnormal, resulting in seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. A generalized epilepsy nhs is typically defined as a brief change in behavior caused by a temporary change in the electrical functioning of the brain.
What are the symptoms of generalized epilepsy nhs?
- Weakness can affect any part of your body. For example, you could be weak in one arm, one leg, or both. Recurrent seizures usually cause weakness in the same part of the body.
- Some people experience anxiety before having a seizure, particularly a focal seizure. It is a warning sign that a generalized epilepsy nhs is about to occur. Some people are overcome with anxiety, fear, or a sense of impending doom.
- Absence seizures are characterized by staring straight ahead, repetitive swallowing, and lapses into complete immobility for a few seconds. They can occur multiple times per day.
- Unpleasant sensations such as a rising stomach feeling, changes in heart rate, or goose bumps
- Hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling things that aren’t there, as well as sensory hallucinations such as flashing lights, tingling sensations, or thinking sounds are muffled when they’re not
- Performing strange, meaningless behaviors that frequently repeat, or automatisms, such as fumbling with clothes, walking in circles, and chewing motions.
- Muscle spasms
- Jerking movements of the arms and legs that are uncontrollable
- Consciousness or awareness loss
What are the main causes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy?
The known causes of seizures involve brain injury. Family history is one of the most common causes of epilepsy because genes play a significant role. If you have a parent or sibling who has epilepsy, you are more likely to develop it than someone who does not. Injury occurring before, during, or shortly after birth. Any issues with brain development in the womb or early infancy increase the risk of epilepsy. Brain damage can occur in babies for a variety of reasons, including infection in the mother, poor nutrition, and a lack of oxygen.
What are the major risk factors for primary generalized epilepsy?
- Infections of the brain in childhood
- Serious injury to the head
- Brain blood vessel abnormalities
- Brain infections include abscesses, meningitis, and encephalitis.
- Using illegal drugs such as cocaine while pregnant
- Seizures that occur repeatedly
- Status epileptics in the family
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
- Distress in a newborn
- Head Injury
- Seizures caused by fever (febrile) that last an unusually long time Family history of epilepsy or fever-related seizures
- Seizures that last a long time
- Preliminary posttraumatic seizures
- Delay in Development
- Epilepsy in the family
- Abnormalities in the brain
- Injuries during pregnancy
- Stroke and other vascular diseases in children
- Childhood is the most common starting point.
- Mild head injuries on multiple occasions
Different types of seizure epilepsy:
There are four types of epilepsy, and each type affects the brain differently.
When the abnormal electrical activity that causes a seizure begins in both halves (hemispheres) of the brain at the same time, this is referred to as a generalized seizure. Absence, atonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and febrile seizures are examples of generalized seizures. Absence seizures also known as petit mal seizures can cause rapid blinking or a brief period of staring into space. Atonic seizures rob you of muscle control. Drop seizures are so-called because they can cause you to collapse onto the floor.
Tonic seizures make you stiffen the muscles in your arms, legs, back and sometimes fall down as a result. Clonic seizures often make you repeat jerking movements in your neck, face, and arms. Myoclonic seizures involve short, twitching and jerking motions in your arms and legs. There is a basic pattern to generalized seizures. Your muscles will first stiffen and become rigid. The muscles then contract violently in quick, random spasms, causing you to experience violent muscle contractions. A family history of generalized seizures or generalized epilepsy is advantageous. Generalized epilepsy symptoms are:
- Tongue lock or bite your cheek
- Lock your jaw
- Loses control of your bladder or bowels
- You will turn blue in the face.
Focal seizures occur in only one part of the brain. These seizures are also referred to as partial seizures. Brain cells communicate with one another by sending electrical signals back and forth, which usually has a rhythm and order to it. A seizure is a brief burst of activity, similar to a flash flood. It throws everything out of whack for a while. That burst of activity begins on one side of your child’s brain during a focal onset seizure. It could happen in more than one place, but it’s only on that side.
Simple focal seizures affect a specific area of the brain. Twitching or a change in sensation, such as a strange taste or smell, can result from these seizures. Complex focal seizures can leave an epileptic confused or dazed. For a few minutes, the person will be unable to respond to questions or directions. Focal epilepsy symptoms are:
- Twitching of the muscles
- Repeated movements such as clapping or chewing
Generalized & Focal Epilepsy
When both generalized epilepsy and focal seizures occur, the condition is known as combined generalized and focal epilepsy. Seizures can occur concurrently or sequentially. Seizures of one type may occur more frequently than others. This type of epilepsy causes a variety of seizures, including one or more of the following:
- Seizures with generalized tonic-clonic activity
- Absence seizures myoclonic seizures tonic seizures atonic seizures
Unknown epilepsy the term ‘unknown’ is used when it is known that the patient has epilepsy but it is not possible to determine whether it is focal, generalized, or a combination of the two. This can happen if there isn’t enough information to classify the epilepsy, such as if the EEG is normal/uninformative.
How to diagnose epilepsy?
- Electroencephalogram (EEG). This is the most common type of test. Sensors placed on your scalp by your doctor record electrical activity in your brain. A symptom is when they notice changes in your normal brain wave pattern. Many people who suffer from epilepsy have abnormal EEGs.
- Blood tests are performed to rule out other causes of seizures, such as genetic conditions or infections.
- Neuropsychological evaluation your cognition, speech, and memory will be tested by a specialist. This assists them in determining where the seizures are occurring in your brain and if there are any other issues.
- Computerized tomography based on single-photon emission (SPECT). This two-part test assists your doctor in determining where seizures begin in your brain. The doctor, as with the PET scan, injects a small amount of radioactive material into a vein to demonstrate blood flow. They will repeat the test when you are not having a seizure and compare the results.
- Tomography using positron emission tomography (PET scan). The doctor will inject a radioactive material into a vein in your arm for this test. It then accumulates in your brain. These aids in the detection of damage by indicating which parts of your brain use more or less glucose. The PET scan allows your doctor to detect changes in your brain chemistry.