What is Social Anxiety Disorder?

social anxiety disorder types and symptoms

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), also known as Social Phobia, is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and persistent fear or anxiety about social situations in which an individual might feel scrutinized, judged, embarrassed, or rejected by others. People with social anxiety disorder often experience significant distress and avoidance behavior related to these situations.

Types of Social Anxiety Disorder

The two main types of SAD are generalized social anxiety and specific social anxiety.

Generalized social anxiety involves excessive fear or anxiety about a wide range of social situations, such as public speaking, meeting new people, eating in public, or attending social events. People with generalized social anxiety disease may experience symptoms in almost all social situations and may feel more comfortable avoiding these situations altogether.

Specific social anxiety involves fear or anxiety related to specific situations, such as giving a presentation, using public restrooms, or performing in front of others. People with specific social anxiety disorder may experience intense fear or anxiety related to these situations but may feel more comfortable in other social situations.

In addition to these types of SAD, researchers have also identified subtypes of social anxiety disorder, such as performance-only subtype (fear only of public speaking or performing), non-generalized subtype (fear only in one or a few specific social situations), and comorbid subtype (when social anxiety is accompanied by other mental health conditions such as depression or substance abuse).

Symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder

  1. Intense fear or anxiety: People with social anxiety disorder may experience intense fear or anxiety before, during, or after social situations.
  2. Avoidance: They may go to great lengths to avoid social situations or may endure them with extreme distress.
  3. Physical symptoms: Social anxiety disorder can cause physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, blushing, nausea, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty speaking.
  4. Self-consciousness: People with social anxiety disorder often experience excessive self-consciousness and worry about how others perceive them.
  5. Negative thoughts and self-talk: They may engage in negative self-talk or self-criticism, such as “I’m going to embarrass myself” or “Everyone is judging me.”
  6. Difficulty making eye contact: They may find it challenging to make eye contact or speak up in social situations.
  7. Perfectionism: People with social anxiety disorder may feel pressure to be perfect or avoid making mistakes in social situations.

These symptoms can significantly interfere with an individual’s daily life, social relationships, and occupational or academic performance. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have social anxiety disorder, it’s essential to seek professional help for a proper diagnosis and treatment.


The causes of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) are complex and may involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Here are some potential factors that may contribute to the development of SAD:

  1. Genetics: Research suggests that there may be a genetic component to social anxiety disease, as it tends to run in families.
  2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in certain brain chemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine, may contribute to social anxiety disease.
  3. Environmental factors: Negative life experiences, such as bullying, abuse, or traumatic events, may increase the risk of developing SAD.
  4. Learned behavior: It may develop as a result of learned behavior, such as a childhood or adolescence characterized by excessive criticism, humiliation, or rejection.
  5. Cognitive biases: Individuals with social anxiety disorder may have negative thinking patterns or cognitive biases that lead to distorted perceptions of themselves and others.
  6. Cultural and social factors: Cultural and social factors, such as a culture that emphasizes social status or appearance, may also contribute to social anxiety disease.
Social Anxiety Disorder causes and symptoms

Treatment for social anxiety Disorder:

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a treatable condition, and there are several effective treatment options available. Here are some common treatments for SAD:

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT is a type of therapy that helps individuals identify and challenge negative thoughts and beliefs that contribute to social anxiety disease. CBT can also involve exposure therapy, where individuals gradually face feared social situations to help them overcome their anxiety.
  2. Medication: Antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) can be effective in treating social anxiety disease.
  3. Mindfulness-based therapy: Mindfulness-based interventions, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), can help individuals with social anxiety disorder learn to focus on the present moment and reduce feelings of anxiety.
  4. Group therapy: Group therapy can provide a supportive and structured environment for individuals with social anxiety disorder to practice social skills and receive feedback.
  5. Lifestyle changes: Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress-reduction techniques such as yoga or meditation, can also help manage symptoms of social anxiety disorder.

It’s important to note that treatment for social anxiety disease may vary depending on the individual’s needs, and a combination of treatments may be necessary for effective management of the condition. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have social anxiety, it’s essential to seek professional help for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.


Lifestyle changes can play an essential role in managing Social Anxiety Disease (SAD). Here are some lifestyle changes that may help:

  1. Regular Exercise: Exercise is an effective way to reduce anxiety and stress. Regular physical activity can also improve mood and increase confidence.
  2. Healthy Diet: Eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains can help support overall health and reduce anxiety symptoms.
  3. Limiting caffeine and alcohol: Caffeine and alcohol can increase anxiety symptoms and interfere with sleep, so it’s essential to limit consumption of these substances.
  4. Sleep hygiene: Getting enough quality sleep is crucial for overall health and well-being. Practicing good sleep hygiene, such as avoiding electronics before bedtime and maintaining a regular sleep schedule, can improve sleep quality and reduce anxiety symptoms.
  5. Relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and meditation can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
  6. Time Management: Prioritizing tasks, setting achievable goals, and avoiding over-commitment can help reduce stress and anxiety associated with feeling overwhelmed.
  7. Social Support: Spending time with supportive friends and family members can provide emotional support and reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness.

It’s important to note that lifestyle changes alone may not be sufficient to manage social anxiety disorder, and professional treatment may be necessary. However, incorporating healthy habits into daily life can help support overall mental health and well-being.

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